Within the noun phrase, there are specialized locative casemarkers for different degrees of distance of the object being located.
There is also a set of locational nouns, which are structured based on an intrinsic frame of reference, at least for some speakers.
The current volume arose from a one-day pre-meeting workshop entitled “How Grammar Encodes Space in Tibeto-Burman” at the 48th International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics, which was held at the University of California, Santa Barbara in August of 2015.
Space is categorized and expressed in Lisu in all areas of structure, both nominal and verbal.
Spatial/locative/directional concepts are sometimes highly grammaticalized in Tibeto-Burman, notably in the Qiangic languages, which are famous for their systems of “directional prefixes” preposed to verbs to indicate the literal or figurative direction of the verbal event.
Like other languages of the Western Sichuan linguistic area, the Yonghe variety of Qiang has robust grammatical systems for spatial concepts.
To be truly fluent in Lamkang, one must utilize these multiple meanings.
These verbs have been grammaticalized and are used as directional morphemes.
It is often much easier to justify investing security resources that are legally or contractually mandated than basing such investments on the overall value to the company of an adequately funded information risk management group.
Given this disparity of funding “must do” tasks while overlooking “should do” tasks, security teams can take the initiative and do the “non-essential” actions that strengthen their organizations’ security as they meet compliance requirements.
Finally, this paper illustrates from two socio-cultural perspectives how entrenched the orientation system is in Rgyalrong.
The selection of semantically-dependent perfectivizer reveals the way Rgyalrong speakers conceptualize events in orientational terms; while the seating arrangement in the Rgyalrong house demonstrates that in assigning orientation terms to refer to various indoor spaces, cultural conceptions override natural geographical settings.