Carbon dating real

Basically, steel is an iron-carbon alloy that does not undergo eutectic reaction.In contrast, cast iron does undergo eutectic reaction.Iron is commonly found in the Earth's crust in the form of an ore, usually an iron oxide, such as magnetite or hematite.Iron is extracted from iron ore by removing the oxygen through its combination with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon which is then lost to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.This process, known as smelting, was first applied to metals with lower melting points, such as tin, which melts at about 250 °C (482 °F), and copper, which melts at about 1,100 °C (2,010 °F), and the combination, bronze, which has a melting point lower than 1,083 °C (1,981 °F).In comparison, cast iron melts at about 1,375 °C (2,507 °F).

The increase in steel's strength compared to pure iron is only possible by reducing iron's ductility.Since the oxidation rate of iron increases rapidly beyond 800 °C (1,470 °F), it is important that smelting take place in a low-oxygen environment.Smelting, using carbon to reduce iron oxides, results in an alloy (pig iron) that retains too much carbon to be called steel.While iron alloyed with carbon is called carbon steel, alloy steel is steel to which other alloying elements have been intentionally added to modify the characteristics of steel.Common alloying elements include: manganese, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, boron, titanium, vanadium, tungsten, cobalt, and niobium.

Leave a Reply