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In developing countries, the risk of prematurity and low birth weight doubles when conception occurs within 6 months of a previous birth, and children born within 2 years of an elder sibling are 60% more likely to die in infancy than are those born more than 2 years after their sibling.
Greater-than-average risk to maternal, perinatal, and child survival is associated with pregnancies at very young (34 years) maternal ages, at high parities, and with short interpregnancy intervals, and with pregnancies that would have ended in unsafe abortion.
The health of the children and mothers has improved, and so has the spacing of babies.
Everyone understands the importance of family planning now.
However, more and more evidence is showing that the methods that work the best towards reducing population growth, are the methods established by the principles of the Cairo Conference in 1994 (United Nations International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) September 1994, Cairo, Egypt), which include: a.
Empowering women and girls in the economic, political, and social arenas; b. Integrating family planning with related efforts to improve maternal and child health; and d. Increasing contraceptive use in developing countries over the past 20 years has, by reducing the number of unintended pregnancies, cut the number of maternal deaths by 40%.
We are far from a world in which all births result from intended pregnancies.
Surveys show that approximately 40% of pregnancies are unintended in developing countries, and 47% in developed ones.
Over 20% of births worldwide result from pregnancies women did not wish to occur.
Education and improved health for women and access to contraception are vital.
Smaller families are healthier families and improve the prospects of each generation.